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FEDERATION CYNOLOGIQUE INTERNATIONALE (FCI) (AISBL)
Place Albert 1er, 13, B – 6530 Thuin (Belgique)
tel: +32.71.59.12.38, fax: + 32.71.59.22.29, internet: http://www.fci.be
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00.00.000/EN

FCI-Standard Nr: 195
ITALIAN VOLPINO
(Volpino Italiano)

TRANSLATION: Mr Antonio Crepaldi for ATAVI [Italian Volpino Lovers Technical
Association] (English)


Country of origin: Italy

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ORIGIN: Italy

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE OFFICIAL VALID STANDARD: 00/00/0000.

UTILIZATION: Guard and companion dog. In the past was particularly utilized as guard dog to
the load of goods on cart to draft of horses against the attempts of theft along the way.

FCI-CLASSIFICATION: Group 5 – Dogs of spitz type and primitive type, Section 4 – European
Spitz; without working trial.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: Autochthnous breed of Italian territory with testimony from
documentation at least since the half of Second Millennium. The more ancient witnesses evidence
more well-known in fact is the oil-painting of 1502 by title “The vision of St. Austin”, preserved in
Venice in St. George’s School, work by Vittore Carpaccio, Big Master of painting. The epoch of
greater splendour of the Italian Volpino was between the end of 18th Century and first 19th Century,
when was very diffused in the regions of Tuscany and Latium, but also in the historical farm of all
the South Italy, next to Corso Dogs, Neapolitan Mastiffs and Maremma and Abruzzes Sheepdogs,
as indefatigable sentry of alarm in the more secluded rural areas. In cynophilie with the standard of
1913, with haughty champions till the half of same century when is disappeared. With the recover
of the white colour variety to start since 1968, is returned in the genealogical register with the first
founder of a family of 1972 that have reconstituted the breed. With the beginning of the Third
Millennium was under way the action of recover and reconstruction also of the red colour variety.

GENERAL APPEARANCE: Small size dog, well compact, agile and solid, harmonious, with a
long stand-off coat.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: Length of body from the point of the shoulder to point of the
buttock is equal to height at the withers; height of chest is lightly inferior to half of height at the
withers; length of muzzle is inferior to half of total length of the head (length of muzzle is inferior
of 13% respect to length of the skull)-(a Italian volpino with height at the withers of 30 cm to have
the length of muzzle of 5 cm [43,5%] and the length of the skull of 6,5 cm [56,5%] of total length of
the head of 11,5 cm).

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT: Very attached to his home and his persons of family, is very
lively and gay, with exuberant temperament.

HEAD: Pyramid shape; total length is not neither the 4/10 of height at the withers.
CRANIAL REGION: Skull of some egg-shaped, whether in longitudinal as transversal diameter;
lightly convergent the direction of cranial-facial axes; superior profile of the skull have is lightly
convex from don’t appear round to ball.
Skull: Bizygomatic width is superior to half of total lenght of the head in the measure of 7,3 cm to
11,5 cm (a Italian volpino with eight at the withers of 30 cm)-(length of the skull is 63,5% of total
length of the head); bony protuberances of forehead are well developed; medio-frontal furrow is
very lightly marked; occipital protuberance is lightly marked.
Stop: Well marked.
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FCI-St. Nr 195 – 00/00/0000                              
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FACIAL REGION

Nose: Great; it is the continuation of rectilinear superior profile of the muzzle and it is not
protruding on the foreface vertical profile of the lips; black pigmentation; well opened nostrils.
Muzzle: Length inferior to length of the skull (a Italian volpino with height at the withers of 30 cm
the length of muzzle is 5 cm [43,5% of total length of the head] and the length of skull is 6,5 cm
[56,5% of total length of the head]; well deep; wide at base with convergent lateral faces between
their but without become very pointed; superior profile is rectilinear; inferior profile of the muzzle
is supplied from the rectilinear inferior border of the jaw.

Lips: Inferior profile of the superior lips seen of front is rectilinear; sufficiently of thick; are closefitting
at the jaw with the labial commissure that is not visible; black pigmentation.
Jaw/Teeth: Strong jaw; set of teeth is complete of number, with white teeth of normal development;
incisors have a regular alignment and are with scissor bite (the pincer bite is tolerated).
Cheeks: Normally development, so not protruding.

Eyes: Normal size and well opened; roundish aperture; iris of dark brown colour; eyeball not
prominent; sub-frontal position; eyelid rims well close-fitting to eyeball and with black
pigmentation; lively and carefull look.

Ears: Are high attached; with naturally erect gait, with forward the internal face, are near between
their for how consent the skull more wide that length; triangular shape; their length is half of total
length of the head, with wide base and a rigid cartilage of good thick.

NECK: Lightly convex the superior profile; length almost equal to total length of the head; erect
gait with well development musculature; well close-fitting skin.

BODY: Square built, for its length measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of the
buttock equal to height at the withers.
Top line: Rectilinear in the dorsal stretch and lightly convex in the lumbar stretch.
Withers: Lightly elevated on the dorsal line; it is harmonically connected at the neck.
Back: Rectilinear; strong musculature; more long that the loin.
Loin: Short; well wide; very muscular from do it lightly arched.
Croup: It follow the line of the loin; inclined on the horizon of 10° from the hip to insertion of the
tail and of 30° from the ilium to the ischium; more long that wide; well muscular.
Chest: It length is almost 4/10 of height at the withers from do short at the back lumbar region; wide
1/3 of the height at the withers; descending to level of elbows, it is lightly inferior to half of height
at the withers; ribs well sprung; breast proportionately wide, with long sternal region and sternal
handle not prominent further the point of the shoulders.
Underline and belly: Sternal line that to go up little towards the belly, that so is little hollow; flanks
with hollow little marked.

TAIL: It follow the line of the croup, so is with high insertion; it is lightly narrow towards the
point; it length is little less of half of height at the withers; well of thick and strong; with abundant
very long hair; with gait always on back whether from stand as during the movement, with the
particularity that more is near at the neck is better.
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FCI-St. Nr 195 – 00/00/0000                        
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LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS

General appearance: Their direction is perfectly straight in plumb seen from the front and from the
side; height at elbow lightly superior to half of height at the withers.
Shoulder: It length is 1/4 of the height at the withers; inclined of 60° on the horizon; well
development muscolature; scapula-humerus angle of 125°.
Upper arm: More long of the shoulder; inclined of 65° on the horizon; well development
musculature.
Elbow: Parallel to the median plane of the body; humerus-radial angle of 155°.
Forearm: More long of the upper arm; dry musculature; small but strong bone.
Carpus (Wrist): Wide almost as the forearm; good thick.
Metacarpus (Pastern): Wide almost as the forearm; lightly flex.
Forefeet: Oval shaped; joined together and well arched toes; nails preferably with black
pigmentation; strong pads with black pigmentation.

HINDQUARTERS

General appearance: Their direction is perfectly straight in plumb seen from the side and from the
rear; their are not very oblong rear the body.

Thigh: Its length is 1/3 of height at the withers; well wide; very development musculature; inclined
of 60° on the horizon; coxo-femoral angle of 90°.

Stifle (Knee): Parallel to the median plane of the body; femoro-tibial angle of 115°-120°.
Lower thigh: Its length is some inferior that the thigh; inclined of 55°-60° on the horizon; well
development musculature; light but strong bone.
Hock joint: More of thick that wide; tibio-tarsal angle of 145°-150°.
Metatarsu (Rear pastern): Its length is such from place the point of the hock joint to a distance from
earth lightly superior of 25% of height at the withers; sufficiently wide; it is vertical and so with
direction in perfect plumb seen from the side and from the rear.
Hind feet: With alls the same characteristics of the forefeet.

GAIT/MOVEMENT: Normal trot, not jumpy; the characteristic gait is the resistant gallop on long
distance (stayer and not sprinter), that produce a normal trot, less oblong respect at the movement of
a typical trotter.

SKIN: Taut and close-fitting in alls the regions, it is not very of thick from hide the bone chisels;
the pigmentation increase with the age.

COAT
Hair: Overcoat is very long and exceptionally straight, that is maintained raised from the very much
undercoat and not as a “volley” as light; the texture of the overcoat is vitreous, while the undercoat
is woolly; the whole of the coat, also when is not very long and abundant, it is very substantial and
of thick, preferably without be falling; the hair wind the body as a muff, specially on the neck where
form a broad collar and not a mane; the skull is covered from semi-long hair, that hide the base of
the ears, while the muzzle have shorthair; the ear is covered from very fine and shorthair; the tail is
covered from very much longhair; on the back regions of the limbs the hair form of the bangs.
FCI-St. Nr 195 – 00/00/0000
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Colour: a) uni-colour white, b) uni-colour red, c) colour champagne, that is accepted but not
desirable; pale-orange shades on the ears are tolerated but in any case constitute a fault; the tonality
of the white colour, favouring from the typical texture of vitreous quality, is dense, as milk type; the
tonality of the red colour is everywhere intense, as deer-red type; the champagne tonality not
washed out to be more of value; in the red colour variety is acceptable a shade more light in the
bangs of the thigh and in the back profile of the tail, while this shade is instead only tolerable on the
breast; always in the red colour variety is tolerable a little white on the feet and the black points on
collar and shoulders, if so is not a undesirable carbonate; only for particularly typical red colour
specimens is besides tolerable a little of white on feet and/or point of the tail, but in any case
constitute a fault.

SIZE AND WEIGHT
Height at the withers: Males from 27 to 30 cm; females from 25 to 28 cm.
Weight: With proportion to height at the withers.

N.B.: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the
seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and
its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

FAULTS: Between the light faults with order of importance observe: head a little more long of the
ratio indicated respect to height at the withers; skull a little more narrow of the ratio indicated
respect to total length of the head; muzzle a little more long of the ratio indicated respect to length
of the skull; parallel cranial-facial axes; protruding nose further the vertical profile of the lips; nose
more light of pigment, if so with good black pigment of the palpebral and labial rims; rims light of
pigment, if so with good black pigment of the nose and palpebral rims; lack of a first premolar
(PM1); overturn scissor bite i.e. with foreface of superior incisors to narrow contact with back face
of inferior incisors, if so with the jaws of equal length, but only for particularly typical specimens;
iris of brown colour a little light; ears a little more short of half of total length of the head; coat not
thick and substantial, if so it is long; mane instead that collar; overcoat not very long; undercoat not
very close-fitting; falling overcoat, if so with undercoat little close-fitting; height at the withers not
further 3 cm from indicated limits; built a little heavy and coarse; body lightly oblong, so little out
from square.

SEVERE FAULTS
With order of gravity: head very much long of the ratio indicated respect to height at the withers;
skull very much narrow respect to total length of the head; skull round as a ball; eyes of oval shape;
prominent eyeball; stop of 90°; stop very much elusive; muzzle very much long of the ratio
indicated respect to length of the skull; muzzle not full of bone sub-stratum but light; tail a little
more short of half to height at the withers; tail always tucked in between hindlegs; tail high from
don’t touch the back; lack of two or more teeth; undershot mouth with the incisors teeth without
contact between their, if so don’t disfigure the appearance of the muzzle; ears very much short of
half of total length of the head; lower thigh (tibia) very long and very inclinated; overcoat of texture
not vitreous; coat not thick and substantial further that short; coat as a “volley” as light; total
absence of undercoat; falling overcoat also if with very much undercoat; washed out red colour;
white-footed in the red colour variety; carbonate red colour variety; height at the withers further 3
cm from indicated limits; built very heavy and coarse; body very oblong, so very rectangular;
jumpy trot.
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FCI-St. Nr 195 – 00/00/0000                        6

 

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS
1. Aggressive or overly shy.
2. Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
3. Untypical specimen.
4. Faults which prohibit a dog from winning any award at dog shows: total or partial lack of tail,
congenital or artificial; overshot mouth; undershot mouth that disfigure the appearance of the
muzzle; ears totally falling; wall eye; convex topline of the muzzle; divergent cranial-facial axes;
total depigmentation of nose and/or eyelid rims (flesh colour); all colours than white, red and
champagne; markings of any colour on white background, on red background or on champagne
background; without one testicle; without two testicles; deficient development of one or two
testicles; one or two testicles not well descents into scrotum.

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FCI-St. Nr 195 – 00/00/0000                          7

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